Insufficient ‘demand’ for toilets and better sanitation is one of the key stumbling blocks in improving rural sanitation in India, and indeed, in many parts of the world. Sanitation is both, a public good and a merit good in economic terms. The latter means that sanitation (toilets) is something that one has to spend money and effort on, but the health benefit received is not always apparent, or even immediate. Therefore even if it is ultimately beneficial, it may not be considered a priority. What is worse is that a lack of sanitation has also causes pollution – which means that your decisions affect not just you, but your neighbors too, and also people who live downstream from you.
Creation of that ‘demand’ for toilets and sanitation is vital if one is able to secure the ‘supply’. Crudely, one can think of the supply in terms of adequate availability of water, of financial resources and the space for construction. One of the underlying theories behind the deployment of the Total Sanitation Campaign was that a financial incentive could trigger that demand for toilets, making them a little more affordable for low income populations. TSC 2.0, the Nirmal Bharat Abhiyan, broadly diagnosed one of the programme’s problems as having too small a financial incentive for households, and stepped up the incentive significantly, also tapping into the funds of the rural employment guarantee scheme MGNREGA, to aid toilet construction.
While financial incentives may be necessary (although many disagree!), they are far from sufficient. The state and the Total Sanitation Campaign did recognize this, and have always had Information, Education and Communication (IEC) as a part of the programme, which has continued into the Nirmal Bharat Abhiyan. The total IEC cost is capped at 15% of the total budget, which includes the institutional structure of the Communication and Capacity Development Units (CCDUs) set up at the state level to support field level work.
The states are given the flexibility to design and implement state-specific IEC strategies. A wide range of activities are taken up, ranging from generating and disseminating messages through various media and involving NGOs for interpersonal communication to engaging motivators. The emphasis has been on a bottom-up approach to communication that can be achieved only by knowing your audience and involving them to create simple, informative and provocative messages. However, with their limited capacities and skills, few states have been able to implement sound communication strategies with desired results. In fact, an assessment of the campaign has showed that only about a fifth of the expenditure sanctioned for IEC is actually spent. 
Professional communication and advertising has done wonders for several other fields and products, many of which we take for granted. For example, dental hygiene proponents may be struggling to get people to floss today, but the fact that everyone brushes their teeth daily in the morning is no accident. Rural India is ripe for disruptive innovation that can change behavior in sanitation, through communication which harnesses the underlying motivations and aspirations of individuals and creates a genuine demand for toilets.
 Examining & Assessing Different Structures of Communication & Capacity Development Units (CCDUs) in the Rural Water Supply &Sanitation (RWSS) Sector; 2009, TARU.